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Within the story, Khufu is characterised in a difficult-to-assess way. On one hand, he is depicted as ruthless when deciding to have a condemned prisoner decapitated to test the alleged magical powers of Dedi.
On the other hand, Khufu is depicted as inquisitive, reasonable and generous: He accepts Dedi's outrage and his subsequent alternative offer for the prisoner, questions the circumstances and contents of Dedi's prophecy and rewards the magician generously after all.
The contradictory depiction of Khufu is the object of great dispute between Egyptologists and historians to this day. They leaned on the ancient Greek traditions of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, who described an exaggerated negative character image of Khufu, ignoring the paradoxical because positive traditions the Egyptians themselves had always taught.
But other Egyptologists, such as Dietrich Wildung , see Khufu's order as an act of mercy: Wildung thinks that Dedi's refusal was an allusion to the respect Egyptians showed to human life.
The ancient Egyptians were of the opinion that human life should not be misused for dark magic or similar evil things. Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim suspect that a difficult-to-assess depiction of Khufu was exactly what the author had planned.
He wanted to create a mysterious character. During the New Kingdom the necropolis of Khufu and the local mortuary cults were reorganized and Giza became an important economic and cultic destination again.
His son and throne follower Thutmose IV freed the Sphinx from sand and placed a memorial stele — known as the " Dream Stele " — between its front paws.
The two steles' inscriptions are similar in their narrative contents, but neither of them gives specific information about the true builder of the Great Sphinx.
At the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty a temple for the goddess Isis was built at the satellite pyramid G1-c that of queen Henutsen at Khufu's necropolis.
During the Twenty-first Dynasty the temple got extended, and, during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty , the extensions continued.
From this period of time several "priests of Isis" Hem-netjer-Iset , who were also "priests of Khufu" Hem-netjer-Khufu , worked there.
During the Late Period huge numbers of scarabs with the name of Khufu were sold to the citizens, possibly as some kind of lucky charms. More than 30 scarabs are preserved.
At Isis' temple a family tree of the Isis priests is on display, which lists the names of priests from to BC. From the same period comes the famous Inventory Stela , which names Khufu and his wife Henutsen.
However, modern Egyptologists question whether Khufu was still personally adored as a royal ancestor at this time; they think it more likely that Khufu was already seen as a mere symbolic foundation figure for the history of the Isis temple.
Manetho also says that Khufu received a contempt against the gods and that he had written a sacred book about that and that he Manetho received that book during his travel through Egypt.
The story about the alleged "Sacred Book" is questioned by modern Egyptologists, for it would be highly unusual that a pharaoh wrote books and that such a precious document could be sold away so easily.
The Greek historian Herodotus instead depicts Khufu as a heretic and cruel tyrant. In his literary work Historiae , Book II, chapter —, he writes: He closed all the temples; after this he kept the priests from sacrificing there and then he forced all the Egyptians to work for him.
So some were ordered to draw stones from the stone quarries in the Arabian mountains to the Nile, and others he forced to receive the stones after they had been carried over the river in boats, and to draw them to those called the Libyan mountains.
Of this oppression there passed ten years while the causeway was made by which they drew the stones, which causeway they built, and it is a work not much less, as it appears to me, than the pyramid.
This pyramid was made after the manner of steps, which some call 'rows' and others 'bases': When they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with devices made of short pieces of timber , lifting them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported.
However, that may be, the highest parts of it were finished first, and afterwards they proceeded to finish that which came next to them, and lastly they finished the parts of it near the ground and the lowest ranges.
On the pyramid it is declared in Egyptian writing how much was spent on radishes and onions and leeks for the workmen, and if I remember correctly what the interpreter said while reading this inscription for me, a sum of silver talents was spent.
Kheops moreover came to such a pitch of evilness, that being in want of money he sent his own daughter to a brothel and ordered her to obtain from those who came a certain amount of money how much it was they did not tell me.
But she not only obtained the sum that was appointed by her father, but she also formed a design for herself privately to leave behind her a memorial: She requested each man who came in to her to give her one stone for her building project.
The same goes for the story about king Khafre. He is depicted as the direct follower of Khufu and as likewise evil and that he ruled for 56 years.
In chapter — Herodotus writes: This king followed the same manner as the other Herodotus closes the story of the evil kings in chapter with the words: The ancient historian Diodorus claims that Khufu was so much abhorred by his own people in later times that the mortuary priests secretly brought the royal sarcophagus, together with the corpse of Khufu, to another, hidden grave.
With this narration he strengthens and confirms the view of the Greek scholars, that Khufu's pyramid and the other two, as well must have been the result of slavery.
However, at the same time, Diodorus distances himself from Herodotus and argues that Herodotus "only tells fairy tales and entertaining fiction".
Diodorus claims that the Egyptians of his lifetime were unable to tell him with certainty who actually built the pyramids. He also states that he didn't really trust the interpreters and that the true builder might have been someone different: Diodorus states that the Khufu pyramid was beautifully covered in white, but the top was said to be capped.
The pyramid therefore already had no pyramidion anymore. He also thinks that the pyramid was built with ramps, which were removed during the finishing of the lime stone shell.
Diodorus estimates that the total number of workers was , and that the building works lasted for 20 years. Upon arriving at the Giza pyramids, they searched for explanations as to who could have built these monuments.
By this time, no inhabitant of Egypt was able to tell and no one could translate the Egyptian hieroglyphs anymore. As a consequence, the Arab historians wrote down their own theories and stories.
The best known story about Khufu and his pyramid can be found in the book Hitat completely: This book contains several collected theories and myths about Khufu, especially about the Great Pyramid.
Though King Khufu himself is seldom mentioned, many Arab writers were convinced that the Great Pyramid and the others, too were built by the god Hermes named Idris by the Arabs.
Then he writes that Khufu built the pyramids after repeated nightmares in which the earth turned upside-down, the stars fell down and people were screaming in terror.
Another nightmare showed the stars falling down from heaven and kidnapping humans, then putting them beneath two large mountains.
King Khufu then received a warning from his prophets about a devastating deluge that would come and destroy Egypt. To protect his treasures and books of wisdom, Khufu built the three pyramids of Giza.
Over time, Egyptologists examined possible motives and reasons as to how Khufu's reputation changed over time.
Closer examinations of and comparisons between contemporary documents, later documents and Greek and Coptic readings reveal that Khufu's reputation changed slowly, and that the positive views about the king still prevailed during the Greek and Ptolemaic era.
Lloyd , for example, points to documents and inscriptions from the 6th dynasty listing an important town called Menat-Khufu , meaning "nurse of Khufu".
This town was still held in high esteem during the Middle Kingdom period. Lloyd is convinced that such a heart-warming name wouldn't have been chosen to honour a king with a bad or, at least, questionable reputation.
Furthermore, he points to the overwhelming number of places where mortuary cults for Khufu were practiced, even outside Giza. These mortuary cults were still practiced even in Saitic and Persian periods.
The famous Lamentation Texts from the First Intermediate Period reveal some interesting views about the monumental tombs from the past; they were at that time seen as proof of vanity.
However, they give no hint of a negative reputation of the kings themselves, and thus they do not judge Khufu in a negative way. Today Egyptologists evaluate Herodotus's and Diodorus's stories as some sort of defamation , based on both authors' contemporary philosophy.
They also call for caution against the credibility of the ancient traditions. They argue that the classical authors lived around years after Khufu and their sources that were available in their lifetimes surely were antiquated.
Oversized tombs such as the Giza pyramids must have appalled the Greeks and even the later priests of the New Kingdom , because they surely remembered the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten and his megalomaniac building projects.
The view was possibly promoted by the fact that during Khufu's lifetime, permission for the creation of oversized statues made of precious stone and their displaying in public was limited to the king only.
These views and resulting stories were avidly snapped up by the Greek historians and so they also made negative evaluations of Khufu, since scandalous stories were easier to sell than positive tales.
Furthermore, several Egyptologists point out that Roman historians such as Pliny the Elder and Frontinus both around 70 A.
Frontinus calls them "idle pyramids, containing the indispensable structures likewise to some of our abandoned aqueducts at Rome " and Pliny describes them as "the idle and foolish ostentation of royal wealth".
Egyptologists clearly see politically and socially motivated intentions in these criticisms and it seems paradoxical that the use of these monuments was forgotten, but the names of their builders remained immortalized.
Another hint to Khufu's bad reputation within the Greek and Roman folk might be hidden in the Coptic reading of Khufu's name.
The Coptic reading derives from a later pronunciation of Khufu as "Shufu", which in turn led to the Greek reading "Suphis". Possibly the bad meaning of the Coptic reading of "Khufu" was unconsciously copied by the Greek and Roman authors.
On the other hand, some Egyptologists think that the ancient historians received their material for their stories not only from priests, but from the citizens living close to the time of the building of the necropolis.
Additionally a long-standing literary tradition does not prove popularity. Even if Khufu's name survived within the literary traditions for so long, different cultural circles surely fostered different views about Khufu's character and historical deeds.
The fact that Diodorus credits the Giza pyramid to Greek kings, might be reasoned in legends of his lifetimes and that the pyramids were demonstrably reused in late periods by Greek and Roman kings and noblemen.
Modern Egyptologists and historians also call for caution about the credibility of the Arabian stories.
They point out that medieval Arabs were guided by the strict Islamic belief that only one god exists, and therefore no other gods were allowed to be mentioned.
As a consequence, they transferred Egyptian kings and gods into biblical prophets and kings. Furthermore, scholars point to several contradictions which can be found in Al-Maqrizi's book.
But some chapters later, Al-Maqrizi claims that the Copts call Saurid the builder of the pyramids. Because of his fame, Khufu is the subject of several modern references, similar to kings and queens such as Akhenaten , Nefertiti and Tutankhamen.
His historical figure appears in movies , novels and documentaries. In , female sci-fi author Jane C. Loudon wrote the novel The Mummy!
A Tale of the 22nd Century. The story describes the citizens of the 22nd century, which became highly advanced technologically, but totally immoral.
Only the mummy of Khufu can save them. Well-known films which deal with Khufu or at least have the Great Pyramid as a theme, are Howard Hawks ' Land of the Pharaohs from , a fictional account of the building of the Great Pyramid of Khufu,  and Roland Emmerich 's Stargate from , in which an extraterrestrial device is found near the pyramids.
Khufu and his pyramid are furthermore the objects of pseudoscientific theories which deal with the idea that Khufu's pyramid was built with the help of extraterrestrials and that Khufu simply seized and re-used the monument,  ignoring archaeological evidence or even falsifying it.
A near-Earth asteroid bears Khufu's name: Khufu and his pyramid are referenced in several computer games such as Tomb Raider — The Last Revelation , in which the player must enter Khufu's pyramid and face the god Seth as the final boss.
Another example is Duck Tales 2 for the Game Boy. In this game the player must guide Uncle Scrooge through a trap-loaded Khufu's pyramid.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 November This article is about the Egyptian pharaoh.
For the encryption algorithm, see Khufu and Khafre. For other uses, see Cheops disambiguation. Great Pyramid of Giza. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames and Hudson, London, Die Sprache der Pharaonen.
Monarchs of the Nile. The natural genesis, or, second part of A book of the beginnings: Eine Stätte für die Ewigkeit: Khufu's 'mefat' expeditions into the Libyan Desert.
Egyptian Archaeology , vol. Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast. Retrieved 21 April Sakuji Yoshimura's Excavating in Egypt for 40 Years: Waseda University, Tokyo , page —, Ancient Records of Egypt: The first through the seventeenth dynasties.
Strategies, Society and Security. Is it an Old Kingdom Sculpture? The Egyptian Museum in Cairo: A Sacred Hillside at Northwest Saqqara.
A Preliminary Report on the Excavations — Volume 61, , page —; see online version with photographs.
Untersuchungen zum Totenkult des ägyptischen Königs im Alten Reich. Die königlichen Statuengruppen , volume 1: Die Denkmäler vom Alten Reich bis zum Ende der Ancient Egyptian Art in the Brooklyn Museum.
Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst München. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History.
Bard, Steven Blake Shubert: Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Sesto Congresso internazionale di egittologia: International Association of Egyptologists, , page — Eine Stätte für die Ewigkeit.
Der Pyramidenkomplex des Cheops aus baulicher, architektonischer und kulturhistorischer Sicht. Vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder. David O'Connor, David P.
Hessling, Berlin , S. Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar I. Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen. Eine philologische und literaturwissenschaftliche Neu- Analyse.
Ägyptologische Abhandlungen , Band The Old and Middle Kingdoms , Band 1. University of California Press 2. Die Geschichten des Herodot , Band 1.
Cheops als Heilsbringer in der Spätzeit. Hessling, Berlin , page — Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde , vol.
Der Nahe und der Mittlere Osten , vol 1. Commentary volume 43 of: Harvard University Press u. Die gute Reputation des Königs "Snofru".
Studies in Egyptology Presented to Miriam Lichtheim , vol. Henry Colburn, London Khufu's Wisdom , Le roman des pyramides. The Second Coming of the Star Gods, The Legend of The Vampire Khufu.
Movies in American History. Erinnerungen an die Zukunft memories to the future. Warum sich der Löffel biegt und die Madonna weint.
Dictionary of minor planet names. Ancient Egypt portal Monarchy portal Biography portal. Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre.
Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib. Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
Cheops, Suphis, Chnoubos,  Sofe . Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Museum. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
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